There was general agreement on a 2030 greenhouse gas emission target, but there are differences from its ambitions. There was no consensus on a renewable energy and energy efficiency target. In general, the energy sector and the energy-intensive industry oppose additional targets. Companies in low-carbon industries, such as renewable energy and energy efficiency, are of course in favour of strict targets and a three-pronged triple objective, which emphasizes the effects of growth and employment as well as security of supply. (Source: Commission Services Non Paper, Green Paper 2030: key results of the public consultation, 2013. In addition, the EU has included the possibility of a 30% reduction in greenhouse gas emissions if a comprehensive and comparable agreement is in place, with similar efforts by other major industrialised and developing countries12. Since no new international agreement was reached for 2020 at the 2009 Copenhagen climate change conference, the EU has not extended the target to 30%. While the 2030 GHG target is consistent with the interim target of the 2011 low-carbon roadmap, some interest groups suggest that greater reductions are needed, while others, conversely, require targets to be dependent on a comprehensive agreement. Many proposals for objectives in the debate are supported by estimates of models whose divergent results depend heavily on the underlying assumptions that make a neutral comparison difficult. Setting goals remains a more normative and political choice. From a scientific point of view, the targets should follow the precautionary principle and therefore aim to reduce GHG emissions by 2050, which would mean a higher target for 2030 than 40%24. With regard to renewable energy and energy efficiency targets, environmental NGOs criticise the fact that they are very close or even inferior to the usual scenarios.25 26 Negotiations on a legal instrument under the UNFCCC began at the first Conference of the Parties (COP) in Berlin in 1995. In 1996, the European Community set for the first time its long-term goal of keeping the increase in global temperature below 2oC compared to the pre-sea industry5.
In preparation for the next Kyoto Summit (COP-3) and the promotion of international commitments on climate change, By setting an example, EU ministers agreed in early 1997 on a specific target to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by 15% in 2010 (compared to 1990), which the EU would share internally in a „burden-sharing agreement“ , in order to introduce specific national targets for the 15 Member States (also known as `EU bubbles`). However, an initial attempt to conclude a burden-sharing agreement by adding up national efforts was only 9.2%; further reductions should be made after an international agreement enters into force6. Following the Kyoto commitments, an internal EU agreement was reached in 1998, setting specific targets for the 2008-2012 commitment period for each of the 15 Member States, in order to achieve an overall reduction of 8% of 8%. In 2002, the Kyoto Targets and the Burden-Sharing Agreement were approved9 and were subject to binding EU law in 200410. In addition, a new monitoring mechanism has been put in place to monitor progress in achieving the objectives11.